Achilles tendinitis is an
inflammation (swelling) of the tendon, which usually occurs as a result of overuse injury. Anyone can have Achilles tendonitis. Athletics involving frequent jumping is the classic cause, but
certainly not the only one. Any activity requiring a constant pushing off the foot, such as running or dancing, may result in swelling of the tendon.
Achilles tendinitis is typically not related to a specific injury. The problem results from repetitive stress to the tendon. This often happens when we push our bodies to do too much, too soon, but
other factors can make it more likely to develop tendinitis, including a bone spur that has developed where the tendon attaches to the heel bone, Sudden increase in the amount or intensity of
exercise activity-for example, increasing the distance you run every day by a few miles without giving your body a chance to adjust to the new distance, Tight calf muscles, Having tight calf muscles
and suddenly starting an aggressive exercise program can put extra stress on the Achilles tendon, Bone spur-Extra bone growth where the Achilles tendon attaches to the heel bone can rub against the
tendon and cause pain.
Dull or sharp pain anywhere along the back of the tendon, but usually close to the heel. limited ankle flexibility redness or heat over the painful area a nodule (a lumpy build-up of scar tissue)
that can be felt on the tendon a cracking sound (scar tissue rubbing against tendon) with ankle movement.
A doctor or professional therapist will confirm a diagnosis, identify and correct possible causes, apply treatment and prescribe eccentric rehabilitation exercises. An MRI or Ultrasound scan can
determine the extent of the injury and indicate a precise diagnosis. Gait analysis along with a physical assessment will identify any possible biomechanical factors such as over pronation which may
have contributed to the achilles tendonitis and training methods will be considered. Biomechanical problems can be corrected with the use of orthotic inserts and selection of correct footwear.
Conservative management of Achilles tendinosis and paratenonitis includes the following. Physical therapy. Eccentric exercises are the cornerstone of strengthening treatment, with most patients
achieving 60-90% pain relief. Orthotic therapy in Achilles tendinosis consists of the use of heel lifts. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): Tendinosis tends to be less responsive than
paratenonitis to NSAIDs. Steroid injections. Although these provide short-term relief of painful symptoms, there is concern that they can weaken the tendon, leading to rupture. Vessel sclerosis.
Platelet-rich plasma injections. Nitric oxide. Shock-wave therapy. Surgery may also be used in the treatment of Achilles tendinosis and paratenonitis. In paratenonitis, fibrotic adhesions and nodules
are excised, freeing up the tendon. Longitudinal tenotomies may be performed to decompress the tendon. Satisfactory results have been obtained in 75-100% of cases. In tendinosis, in addition to the
above procedures, the degenerated portions of the tendon and any osteophytes are excised. Haglund?s deformity, if present, is removed. If the remaining tendon is too thin and weak, the plantaris or
flexor hallucis longus tendon can be weaved through the Achilles tendon to provide more strength. The outcome is generally less favorable than it is in paratenonitis surgery.
Surgery is considered the last resort and is often performed by an orthopedic surgeon. It is only recommended if all other treatment options have failed after at least six months. In this situation,
badly damaged portions of the tendon may be removed. If the tendon has ruptured, surgery is necessary to re-attach the tendon. Rehabilitation, including stretching and strength exercises, is started
soon after the surgery. In most cases, normal activities can be resumed after about 10 weeks. Return to competitive sport for some people may be delayed for about three to six months.
Stretching of the gastrocnemius (keep knee straight) and soleus (keep knee bent) muscles. Hold each stretch for 30 seconds, relax slowly. Repeat stretches 2 - 3 times per day. Remember to stretch
well before running strengthening of foot and calf muscles (eg, heel raises) correct shoes, specifically motion-control shoes and orthotics to correct overpronation. Gradual progression of training
programme. Avoid excessive hill training. Incorporate rest into training programme.